Bankruptcy is the legal solution that can help individuals or businesses with overwhelming debts regain control of their finances. An article posted in the website of the United States Courts says that a chapter 7 case begins with the debtor filing a petition with the bankruptcy court serving the area where the individual lives or where the business debtor is organized or has its principal place of business or principal assets. In addition to the petition, the debtor must also file with the court:

  • Schedules of assets and liabilities;
  • A schedule of current income and expenditures;
  • A statement of financial affairs; and
  • A schedule of executory contracts and unexpired leases.

Courts charge a $245 case filing fee, a $75 miscellaneous administrative fee, and a $15 trustee surcharge. Normally, the fees must be paid to the clerk of the court upon filing, however, with the court’s permission, individual debtors may pay in installments.

Filing bankruptcy will mean immediate cessation of whatever form of harassment (in the form of e-mails, phone calls, letters, text messages, lawsuits and others) law firms and debt collectors use to force debtors to make payments.

There are different options in the bankruptcy law, each intended to address a person’s or a business’ specific financial situation. Assessing your situation well is necessary so that you will know which bankruptcy chapter to file and whether you qualify under such chapter’s protection.

Chapter 7 bankruptcy, for instance, is a liquidation bankruptcy.  This is best for people or businesses that have properties, but whose income does not go above the stipulated limit set under the chapter. As the definition suggests, this law will require the liquidation of a few of your properties (you can choose specific properties, though, that should not be sold). The selling is to be done by a court-appointed trustee who will also use the amount earned to pay your creditors. Debts to be paid are only those categorized as non-dischargeable, such as court fines, alimony and student loans. Medical bills, business and personal loans, debts due to use of credit cards are called dischargeable debts, meaning, the court may free you from the obligation of still paying these.

One requirement this law has is the means test, which applicants need to pass. The means test is a way to determine if your income is low enough to qualify you to seek the protection of this chapter.

The Bradford Law Offices, PLLC, says that Chapter 7 is one of the most commonly sought forms of bankruptcy because it provides individuals with a way to discharge, or completely eliminate, many of their existing debts.  If you are suffering under the weight of unmanageable debt, Chapter 7 bankruptcy may be able to provide you with much-needed relief.

 


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Ensuring the Health of Workers through Clean Air and Proper Ventilation in the Workplace

Buildings constructed before 1980 usually used materials and equipment that contained asbestos, a highly elastic substance that is electricity, chemical, fire and heat resistant. Asbestos had earned the name “miracle substance” due to its superb characteristics, abundance, usefulness and cheapness. This special substance became widely used during the mid of the 20th century; it was usually mixed with other substances to make cement, generators, turbines, boilers, steam pipes, brakes and clutches, insulators, gaskets, hot water piping, furniture, appliances, construction materials and a hundred other different things.

Although totally useful, asbestos has ill-effects: Asbestosis, Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma.

Asbestos-containing materials (ACM) can release sharp, tiny fibers into the environment due to wear and tear or when they are disturbed. If inhaled, these fibers can be imbedded in the lungs, remain there and cause lethal damage.

With regard to the three known effects of inhaled asbestos:

  • Asbestosis. This is characterized by scarred lung tissues resulting to difficulty to inhale.
  • Lung Cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases due to further exposure to Asbestos and it can worsen due to exposure to tobacco smoke.
  • Mesothelioma, a form of chronic cancer that can affect the membrane linings of the abdominal organs and lungs, or the sacs surrounding the heart and the testis. It is considered rare, yet deadly.

One characteristic of mesothelioma that puts those diagnosed with it totally at the losing end is its extremely long latency period, which is 40 years or more (there are instances wherein the symptoms appear much faster, especially if the amount of asbestos one is exposed to and the amount of fibers inhaled are too great). Thus, by the time this deadly, chronic cancer becomes diagnosable, it would already have developed to a stage wherein no type of treatment is no longer possible.

According to the mesothelioma lawsuit attorneys of Williams Kherkher, “Anyone who worked with or around asbestos could develop one of the harmful forms of mesothelioma cancer, however, the following workers are more likely to have encountered asbestos in their careers:
construction workers, contract workers, factory employees, military personnel, and railroad workers.

To protect workers from the deadly effects of asbestos, the firm Robovent “Air quality is a critical issue for manufacturers. Fumes and particulates created by welding and other industrial manufacturing processes aren’t just unpleasant — they have real health and safety consequences.” Ensuring the safety of any type of work environment is necessary as the health of workers can be compromised in one where toxic materials, like asbestos, is present.


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The U.S. Bankruptcy Code offers businesses and individuals various legal means which will allow them rise up from overwhelming debts and regain stability in their financial future. These legal solutions include liquidation bankruptcy or reorganization bankruptcy.

Bankruptcy, per se, offers many advantages, such as:

  • the restructuring or reorganization of the debt payment scheme to make monthly payments more affordable;
  • the discharge of all unsecured debts (such as debts due to credit card use, medical bills, personal loans, etc.); or,
  • the liquidation of certain assets and properties to pay non-dischargeable debts (these are usually debts owed to the government).

There are different chapters in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, each designed to address an individual’s or a firm’s specific financial situation. There is chapter 7 (which is liquidation bankruptcy), chapter 11 (or business reorganization), and chapter 13 (or business reorganization designed for sole proprietors).

In the year 2010 alone, the U.S. federal bankruptcy courts recorded the filing of more than 1.5 million personal bankruptcy cases. Millions of American individuals and hundreds of business firms (both small and giant firms) resort to bankruptcy due to the many advantages it offers. However, a good business lawyer would not immediately offer bankruptcy as the main solution to overwhelming debts. He/she will first discuss bankruptcy’s advantages and disadvantages, as well the benefits and detriments of other legal means, like debt negotiation.

As explained in the website of the Bradford Law Offices, PLLC, debt negotiation is a better option due to the more manageable payment plan that it offers. This is because debt negotiation:

  • Does not require a litigation process (which bankruptcy requires);
  • Offers debtors the choice of paying the debt through a single/lump sum payment or through more affordable monthly payments;
  • Frees a debtor from being harassed by debt collectors, as well as from lawsuits and any legal action that will result to the forced sale of his/her properties;
  • Reduces or defers interest payments, lengthens the time span of payment, and allows the consolidation of loan payments; and,
  • Reduces the amount of the loan to more than half its original sum.

It will require great negotiation skills and extensive financial expertise, however, to make debt negotiation effective and successful. And this is what the likes of Ryan Ruehle have been specially trained to deliver.


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A painful shoulder can be extremely debilitating. When this happens, there is usually limited movement in this part of the body. When the traditional method of treatment fails, shoulder replacement is usually the best option. While approximately 9 out of 10 shoulder replacement procedures are usually last for a decade, there are instances when they do fail. According to the website of Williams Kherkher, a failed shoulder replacement surgery can cause significant injuries to the patient.

Over the years, there has been an increase in the number of shoulder replacement lawsuits. Rather than make the patient feel better, some replacement devices have made life more difficult for patients. They reported various complications such as significant bone loss, instability, weakness, and unexplained pain. Every surgery comes with a risk of failure regardless of what the operation was intended for.

In shoulder replacement, the top of the humerus and shoulder blade is replaced by an artificial implant. Cement is used to make the new components stick. Another alternative for holding the new components together is a material that promotes the growth of the new bone. Rehabilitation generally takes several months. A successful operation is good for 10 to 20 years.

However, the failure of the shoulder replacement may bring about various risks and complications. It can cause infections which may result to the removal of shoulder prosthesis. When the infection is gone, the patient may already receive new implants. A failed shoulder replacement may also cause rotator cuff damage. In addition, it may also cause bone fracture which may result to a second shoulder surgery. When all of these happen, it will usually cause severe pain and disability. The only way to treat shoulder replacement failure is shoulder replacement revision surgery. These types of procedures are usually associated with a higher risk of complication. The patient will usually not be able to return to the same level of functioning after a revision procedure.


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Thanks to the exponential advancements in technology, the pharmaceutical industry has been able to evolve in unimaginable ways for the last few decades. Today, medical professionals have access to a huge number of different devices, tools, and medications that makes addressing various health concerns a much easier task. Reliable and accessible medical solutions would be impossible without the pharmaceutical companies that continue to push the borders of innovation.

While the pharmaceutical industry has certainly created many new technologies that allow doctors to do more and more for their patients, its individual players can’t be considered completely infallible. There are plenty of defective medical devices and pharmaceuticals that are that are still widely-used in hospitals and other medical settings across the United States. As a matter of fact, the lawyers of Williams Kherkher have pointed out that a huge percentage of all product liability suits filed in America are for damages caused by medical drugs and devices.

Usually, the Food and Drug Administration is able to catch the issues that could lead to a certain medical product becoming harmful before approving it for public use. There are times, however, when the FDA’s investigations miss certain details and things fall through the cracks. When a medical product ends up being causing harm to patient’s well-being, pharmaceutical companies are expected to take immediate action by calling for a recall and working to improve the errors in their product. Unfortunately, in plenty of occasions, pharmaceutical companies don’t take action until it’s too late.

Metal-on-metal joint implants are an example of defective pharmaceuticals that have caused great harm and injury to a significant number of patients. Complications with these implants are known to cause bone and tissue damage, as well as metal toxicity in the body.


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